Pad and Rotor Bed-In Theory, Definitions and Procedures
StopTech's Recommended Procedure for Bedding-in Stock-Sized & Performance Brake Systems
by Matt Weiss of StopTech and James Walker, Jr. of scR motorsports
When a system has both new rotors and pads, there are two different objectives for bedding-in a performance brake system: heating up the brake rotors and pads in a prescribed manner, so as to transfer pad material evenly onto the rotors; and maturing the pad material, so that resins which are used to bind and form it are ‘cooked' out of the pad.
The first objective is achieved by performing a series of stops, so that the brake rotor and pad material are heated steadily to a temperature that promotes the transfer of pad material onto the brake rotor friction surface. There is one pitfall in this process, however, which must be avoided. The rotor and, therefore, the vehicle should not be brought to a complete stop, with the brakes still applied, as this risks the non-uniform transfer of pad material onto the friction surface.
The second objective of the bedding-in process is achieved by performing another set of stops, in order to mature the pad itself. This ensures that resins which are used to bind and form the pad material are ‘cooked' out of the pad, at the point where the pad meets the rotor's friction surface.
The bed-in process is not complete until both sets of stops have been performed. There's one exception, however. Some pad manufacturers sell ‘race-ready' pads, which have been pre-conditioned by flame heat-treating or laser etching, to provide a mature surface on the pad face. If race-ready pads are being used, then the second set of controlled stops is unnecessary. Also note that the same circumstances exist when a system to be bedded has new rotors and used pads (a strategy that professional teams use to break in their rotors ahead of time) one only has to perform a single set of stops to transfer pad material uniformly onto the new rotor.Note that, if the brakes of a vehicle with high-performance or racing pads are not used continuously in an aggressive manner, the transfer layer on the rotors can be abraded (literally worn off). However, the transfer layer can be re-established, if needed, by repeating one series of stops in the bed-in procedure. This process may be repeated as often as necessary during the life of the pad.
This characteristic is useful when a system is already bedded-in with one pad friction and another is to be used going forward, like when changing between pad types for the street and track (and then after a track event, back again). The procedure under this case is different, where the new friction is installed and the vehicle is first driven for 5 to 20 miles (8 to 33 Km) with light use, keeping the pad friction and rotor cold. This promotes the abrasive friction mechanism cleaning the rotor surface of the previous pad material before performing either one or two bed-in cycles as prescribed below. One set of stops as outlined, if the pads being installed are used, two if the pads are actually new
The bed-in procedures below outline the steps required to effectively bed-in performance brake systems. We strongly recommend that, in order to complete the bed-in safely, the bed-in procedures be conducted in dry conditions on a race track or other controlled environment, so as not to endanger yourself or others. Please note that we neither recommend nor condone driving at high speeds on public roads. While it is important to get enough heat into the system to effectively bed-in the brakes, it is even more important to exercise common sense at all times, and to conduct the bed-in procedure responsibly.Bedding-in Street Performance Pads
For a typical performance brake system using street-performance pads, a series of ten partial braking events, from 60mph down to 10mph, will typically raise the temperature of the brake components sufficiently to be considered one bed-in set. Each of the ten partial braking events should achieve moderate-to-high deceleration (about 80 to 90% of the deceleration required to lock up the brakes and/or to engage the ABS), and they should be made one after the other, without allowing the brakes to cool in between.
Depending on the make-up of the pad material, the brake friction will seem to gain slightly in performance, and will then lose or fade somewhat by around the fifth stop (also about the time that a friction smell will be detectable in the passenger compartment). This does not indicate that the brakes are bedded-in. This phenomenon is known as a green fade, as it is characteristic of immature or ‘green' pads, in which the resins still need to be driven out of the pad material, at the point where the pads meet the rotors. In this circumstance, the upper temperature limit of the friction material will not yet have been reached.
As when bedding-in any set of brakes, care should be taken regarding the longer stopping distance necessary with incompletely bedded pads. This first set of stops in the bed-in process is only complete when all ten stops have been performed - not before. The system should then be allowed to cool, by driving the vehicle at the highest safe speed for the circumstances, without bringing it to a complete stop with the brakes still applied. After cooling the vehicle, a second set of ten partial braking events should be performed, followed by another cooling exercise. In some situations, a third set is beneficial, but two are normally sufficient.Bedding-in Club Race or Full Race Pads
For a typical performance brake system using race pads, the bed-in procedure must be somewhat more aggressive, as higher temperatures need to be reached, in order to bring certain brands of pad material up to their full race potential.
We typically recommend a set of ten partial braking events, from 60mph down to 10mph, followed immediately by three or four partial braking events, from 80mph down to 10mph. Alternately, a set of eleven stops, from 80mph to 40mph, or a set of seven stops, from 100mph to 50mph, would be approximately the same. As with street pads, each of the partial braking events should achieve moderate-to-high deceleration (about 80% of the deceleration required to lock up the brakes and/or to engage the ABS), and they should be made one after the other, without allowing the brakes to cool in between.
Again, depending on the make-up of the pad material, the brake friction will seem to gain slightly in performance, and will then lose or fade somewhat about halfway through the first set of stops. This does not indicate that the brakes are bedded-in, except where race-ready pads are being used. This phenomenon is the same as that which occurs with high-performance or street pads (except that, when race-ready pads are used, they do not exhibit green fade, and they will be bedded-in after just one complete set of stops).
As when bedding-in any set of brakes, care should be taken regarding the longer stopping distance necessary with incompletely bedded pads. This first set of stops in the bed-in process is only complete when the recommended number of stops has been performed - not before. As a general rule, it would be better to perform additional stops, than not enough. The system should then be allowed to cool, by driving the vehicle at the highest safe speed for the circumstances, without bringing it to a complete stop with the brakes still applied.
After cooling the vehicle, a second set of the recommended number of stops should be performed, followed by another cooling exercise. In some situations, a third set is beneficial, but two are normally sufficient.
Racers will note that, when a pad is bedded-in properly, there will be approximately 2mm (0.1 inch) of the pad edge near the rotor, on which the paint will have turned to ash, or the color of the pad will have changed to look as though it has been overheated.
In summary, the key to successfully bedding-in performance brakes is to bring the pads up to their operating temperature range, in a controlled manner, and to keep them there long enough to start the pad material transfer process. Different brake system designs, pad types, and driving conditions require different procedures to achieve a successful bed-in. The procedures recommended above should provide a useful starting point for developing bed-in procedures appropriate to individual applications.sourced from StopTech's website: http://www.stoptech.com/tech_info/wp_bedinperformance.shtml
------------------------------------------------From Hawk Performance FAQ:Q: Why should I perform a break-in procedure on new brake pads?
A: Correct brake pad break-in (bedding) is important to assure quality braking performance over the life of the pad. This procedure allows the rubbing surface of the brake pad to slowly be brought up to racing temperatures. Proper bedding creates a transfer layer film of friction material to be applied to the rotor surface. This allows the brake pad material to rub against itself rather than the bare rotor. This increases the stopping performance of the brake pad and can reduce pad and rotor wear.Q: What is the proper procedure for braking in new brake pads?
A: Brake pad break-in procedure.
1. After reaching medium speed engage brake pedal to slow car without coming to a complete stop. Release pedal quickly and do not drag brakes. Repeat four or five times.
2. At higher speeds engage brake pedal to slow car without coming to a complete stop. Release pedal quickly and do not drag brakes. Repeat five times.
3. At or near race speed engage brake pedal to slow car without coming to a complete stop. Release pedal quickly and do not drag brakes. Repeat three times. Allow a few seconds between brake engagements while car is in motion.
4. Do not hold brake pedal. Park car for approximately 20 minutes or until brake rotors are completely cool to the touch.
5. If during the above steps the brake pedal becomes soft or brake fade is noticed, park the car immediately for approximately 20 minutes. Do not hold brake pedal.Important reminders:
* Do not attempt to use badly worn or damaged rotors with new brake pads.
* Do not drag brakes while car is moving during break-in procedure.
* Do not engage pedal while car is stopped at any time following the break-in procedure.
* Upon completing the procedure, allow the brake system to completely cool before racing.
* Applying the pedal a few times before the start of the race will allow the brake pads to heat up before attempting to reach race speeds.
* Clean a used rotor surface with fine sand paper or steel wool, rinse with water, dry and install before bedding new pads.
* Some forms of racing don't allow time for the proper break-in procedure to be performed. However, it is still very important to attempt to perform at least the core of the procedure: slow heat build up and complete cool down.sourced from HawkPerformance.com: http://www.hawkperformance.com/motorsports/faqs.phpSpecific Bed-In Procedures for Hawk Pads
For HPS & HP Plus street pads:
1. After installing new brake pads, make 6 to 10 stops from approximately 30-35 mph applying moderate pressure.
2. Make an additional 2 to 3 hard stops from approximately 40 to 45 mph.
3. DO NOT DRAG BRAKES!
4. Allow 15 minutes for brake system to cool down.
5. After step 4 your new pads are ready for use.
For DTC-30 race pads:
1. Seal all brake ducts if applicable.
2. At medium speeds slowly engage brakes 6 to 8 times without coming to a complete stop. DON NOT DRAG BRAKES.
3. Increase speed to simulate race conditions. At near race speed engage the brakes 6 to 8 times without coming to a complete stop. DO NOT DRAG BRAKES.
4. Allow system to cool down by immediately parking the car for 15 minutes or longer. Brakes should reach ambient temperature or cool to touch. Do not engage the brakes during cool down period. Remove duct seals. Brakes are now ready to use.
5. After step 4 your new pads are ready for use.
------------------------------------------------Bendix: Tips for Brake Noise Prevention
• Disc Brake Hardware: Caliper bolts, sleeves bushings and clips. These must be new or in “like new” condition. Caliper bolts must not be bent and must be torqued to manufacturer specifications. Caliper slides and bushings must be clean and lubricated with the manufacturer-recommended brake caliper lubricant. (Honda recommends Molycote77, Toyota uses P/N 08887-80609.) Clips hold pads in the caliper should be replaced with new ones during every brake job. Make sure to look up and use only the recommended caliper lube procedure. Keep in mind that all manufacturers have very specific lubrication procedures. This lubrication is necessary to prevent vibration-induced noise. Failure to follow these lubrication procedures will result in unwanted brake noise.
• Rotors: Even new rotors should be treated to a non-directional finish. All manufacturers now recommend a non-directional finish on rotors. Rotors should be washed with soap and hot water before installation, as solvent-type cleaners do not remove all machining dust, and because drying with compressed air usually results in oil contamination of the friction material. It is also very important to make sure that the wheel flange behind the rotor is free of any rust or debris. Failure to eliminate rust or debris will cause rotor “run out,” which, over time, will cause friction material to be transferred to the rotor surface. This will eventually cause noise due to extreme variance in rotor thickness. It is also imperative to use an on-car lathe when it is recommended by a car’s manufacturer. Most all manufacturers feel that this is the only way to turn the rotors on vehicles and not produce run out. For example, performing a brake job on a Toyota or Honda vehicle without using an on-car lathe is gambling on a noise-related customer comeback. Honda even states that a new rotor must be turned on the car after it is installed in order to prevent brake vibration.
• Pad Fits in the Anchor: Anchor brackets do wear out. The pad should fit very snug in the anchor bracket. The factory maximum clearance is only .010. Most squeal noise is caused by loose-fitting pads in anchor bracket. (Toyota has Technical Service Bulletins that explain lubrication of pad retaining clip for this reason alone.)
• Proper Pad “Break In” is Critical. Any time you perform a brake job, you should perform 30-50 moderate stops from speeds lower than 40 mph. There should be a minimum of seven tenths of a mile cool down between stops. Excessive heating or hard use when new will cause brake pad glazing and will prevent proper break-in. The proper break in procedure is outlined in your car’s owner manual.
• Proper Lug Nut Torque: Proper lug nut torque cannot be stressed enough! Improper lug nut torque will cause rotor deflection will cause, over time and 2,000 to 3,000 miles, RTV resulting in noise and brake pedal pulsation. Deflection will not manifest itself until mileage has accumulated on the vehicle causing you to believe that the noise is not related to the original brake job. Always use a calibrated torque wrench and look up the proper wheel torque for the vehicle on which you are working.
• Read the Service Procedure and All TSBs for the Vehicle. Import calipers are small and prone to vibration. Manufacturers know this and have published a lot of information on how to prevent noise and vibration on these vehicles. Domestic manufacturers also have many revised brake service procedures that relate to noise prevention. Take time to familiarize yourself with the proper service procedure for the vehicle on which you are working.sourced from bendixbrakes.com: www.bendixbrakes.com/download/pdf/Tips-for-Brake-Noise-Prevention.pdf